Imagine small robots in your body that move from place to place, fixing damaged cells and reporting on the state of your body. Famed author and futurist Ray Kurzweil predicts that sufficiently advanced nanotechnology will do exactly this, putting a stop to aging by the year 2030
As parts of our aging bodies begin to fail, some predict the use of cloning as a source of perfectly compatible replacement parts. An extreme realization of this would basically see us keeping copies of ourselves as pets that we turn into spare parts.
The technology has a ways to go before it can be a practical weapon in the fight against death. So far in experiments with mice, complex stuff like joints and complete limbs have failed, but scientists have grown replacement bladders for patients fighting bladder disease with much success.
Cloned mice in a lab experiment
Cryonics is basically the act of turning yourself into a message in a bottle. Whatever it is that ails you, suppose contemporary science doesn't have a solution. You can shift the burden of discovery to the scientists of the future by putting yourself in deep freeze until your problem is solved.
In medically freezing your body, the idea is that you will reach some sort of stasis and be preserved, illness and all, until such a time as doctors can treat you effectively, however far down the road that may be.
We can already pump artificial genes into an organism in order to replace faulty genes, so the thinking here is that we can target genes related to aging and halt their degenerative effects.
Instead of altering or replacing genes related to aging, what if we just convinced them to never activate?
Richard Dawkins writes in The Selfish Gene that we could potentially do so by "identifying changes in the internal chemical environment of a body that take place during aging[...] and by simulating the superficial chemical properties of a young body."
What are we but minds attached to bodies?
There are some who imagine a world where the entire contents of one's brain is uploaded to a computer and run as if it were a piece of software. The body will inevitably fail over time, but the computer is ostensibly immortal.
There's a healthy debate surrounding whether such an application would actually constitute life extension, since it forgoes the physical body.
Strategies for Engineered Negligible Senescence (SENS)
This is a program for putting a stop to aging. "Negligible senescence" is just highfalutin science talk for how some species don't appear to age, like lobsters.
SENS culls together a variety of anti-aging methods and experimental treatments for different "schemes," or courses of treatment dependent upon what your body is doing – if dealing with cancer, for example, you'd opt for a scheme called OncoSENS.
Immunization against the "disease" of aging
This is only a theoretical idea now, but there are those who maintain we'll one day get a booster shot that will not only protect us from the flu, but from death itself.
Of course it's just science fiction for now.
Even Google's getting into the anti-aging game.
Google recently formed a biotech company called Calico, which will focus specifically on anti-aging work. There's not much known about it yet except that they're very well-funded and the company is already interviewing its first potential employees.